On the relationship between multiple intelligences and performance on reading proficiency item types. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Reading Proficiency of implications of the theoryFirst and Second Language Literacy Development. PDF | This study set out with the aim of assessing whether Multiple Intelligences The Relationship Between Multiple Intelligences and Language .. learners of Japanese scored higher on most literacy-related strategy items.
For musical intelligence, operations might involve sensitivity to pitch or the ability to discriminate among different rhythmic patterns. Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.
Psychological studies of transfer, where subjects are taught a skill and then are expected to automatically transfer that learning to a different domain, show that abilities generally don't transfer from one intelligence to another.
For example, becoming a better reader will not necessarily make one a better math student, or learning to kick a soccer ball will not necessarily make it easier to paint a picture or relate well to another person.
This general lack of transfer suggests the relative autonomy of each of the eight intelligences. Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.
Disease or injury to certain areas of the brain appears to selectively impair specific intelligences while leaving the others intact. For example, an injury to Broca's area in the left frontal lobe of the brain can devastate a person's ability to speak or read, but that individual will often be able to paint, hum a tune, skate, or smile at another person because these functions are associated with unimpaired areas of the brain.
However, an individual with damage to the right temporal lobe may lose the ability to carry a tune while retaining the ability to speak, read, and write. Roughly speaking, here are major areas of the brain that are associated with each of the eight intelligences: Literacy Is a Whole-Brain Activity It seems clear from the above survey of the eight intelligences that reading and writing are linguistic activities.
In addition, we tend to associate the activities of poets, playwrights, novelists, hyperlexic savants, and bookworms almost exclusively with linguistic intelligence. Certain distinctive brain structures, particularly in the left hemisphere for most people, are particularly important when it comes to the processing of the phonological, semantic, and syntactic aspects of words. In sum, there are strong reasons for literacy to be regarded as part and parcel of linguistic intelligence.
Having said this, however, I'd like to argue that when we look at how the brain processes the actual experience of reading and writing, we can begin to see how all of the eight intelligences have important parts to play.
To illustrate, let's examine what happens in the brain during the simple act of speaking a printed word see Figure 1. First the human eye must see the word on the page.
- Literacy Is a Whole-Brain Activity
- The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: A Brief Primer
This sensation is first registered by the primary visual area in the occipital lobe the seat of spatial intelligence. I like to think of the angular gyrus as the region of the brain that most reflects the idea of multiple intelligences' relationship to literacy because it is here, at the crossroads of three different lobes, that many different types of information are brought together or associated with each other in creating linguistic information, including visual-spatial configurations, musical and oral sounds, and even physical sensations.
In the nearby region of Wernicke's area all of this information is synthesized in such a way that it can be understood in a meaningful way i. From there, it is transmitted via a bundle of nerve fibers called the arcuate fasciculus to Broca's area in the lower left frontal lobe, where it is logically encoded in a grammatical system, and a program is prepared to evoke articulation, and then supplied to the motor cortex, which in turn drives the muscles of the lips, tongue, and larynx to speak the actual word Geschwind, Here then we see the involvement of several intelligences, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, and bodily-kinesthetic, in this simple act of speaking a printed word.
Speaking a Written Word While the above scenario took place in the left hemisphere of the brain, there is increasing evidence that reading and writing involve significant use of the right hemisphere as well. In addition, the right hemisphere appears to take information that has been initially processed by the left hemisphere and uses it in the course of comprehending text Coney, There are also subcortical structures involved in the process of reading, including the cerebellum, which has been previously linked to bodily-kinesthetic functions, and also areas of the limbic system that become activated while experiencing emotions during the process of reading Fulbright et al.
However, some of these newer brain studies which will be reviewed in greater detail throughout the book accord well with our understanding of the actual experiences involved in reading and writing.
The person who reads and writes is doing far more than simply linguistically encoding data. She is also looking at the visual configuration of the letters. Then she must match these visual images with sounds. In doing this, she must draw upon her wealth of knowledge concerning musical sounds musical intelligencenature sounds naturalist intelligenceand the sounds of words linguistic intelligence in order to make the proper letter-sound correspondences. In addition, she brings in information from her body bodily-kinesthetic intelligence to ground these visual and auditory sensations into a structure of meaning.
As we will see in Chapter 2, the physical body is integral to processing the shapes of letters and the meaning of words and text.
Literacy, Multiple Intelligences, and the Brain
Once she begins to organize the information into grammatical units, she draws upon deep intuitive syntactic structures that employ logical-mathematical transformations see Chapter 5 for more information about this process. As she reads meaningful information, she may visualize what she reads spatial intelligenceexperience herself actively engaged in a physical way in the text bodily-kinesthetic intelligencehave emotional reactions to the material intrapersonal intelligenceattempt to guess what the author or characters intend or believe interpersonal intelligenceand think critically and logically about what she is reading logical-mathematical intelligence.
She may decide to take action as a result of her reading and writing, either in a physical way bodily-kinesthetic intelligence or perhaps within some larger social context interpersonal intelligence.
In each of these cases, our reader is bringing to bear different intelligences upon the multilayered processes of reading and writing.
When we begin to think of literacy as involving all of the intelligences it becomes easier to understand the variety of ways in which literacy itself is learned and practiced. We know from the literature on individuals who have difficulty reading and writing that their difficulties are not all the same.
Some students have particular problems with the visual configurations of letters sometimes this is referred to as dyseidetic dyslexiawhile others encounter difficulties primarily with the sounds of language dysphonetic dyslexia.
Other students can decode individual words but encounter obstacles in comprehending whole text. Some individuals have problems primarily with the underlying grammatical-logical structures of sentences.
Others have difficulties visualizing what they have read, or understanding what the author's intent may be. By the same token, people actually learn to read in many different ways.
But it took a writer like Rudolf Flesch to point out that many students were being left out of this approach. As he indicated, some students need to learn to read by mastering the sounds or phonemes of language and their correspondences to the visual letters.
Other students, however, have had difficulty with a decontextualized phonetic approach to reading and seem to do better with a method that emphasized real literature and natural contexts for reading and writing. Several years ago, a study on reading published in the New England Journal of Medicine received significant national attention by suggesting that individuals described as dyslexic were not part of a special species of learner separate from normal readers, but rather, that they represented the low end of a continuum of reading ability found in the rest of the population Shaywitz, et al.
I'd like to suggest that this continuum stretches from the nonreader all the way up to Shakespeare, and that every one of us falls somewhere along this spectrum. And the fact is, there are multiple pathways to the highest peaks of literacy as we will see in the next eight chapters of this book. The biggest issue for educators to resolve regarding the Literacy Lion shouldn't be whether whole language or phonics is the best way to teach reading, or whether to focus on punctuation or creativity in writing, or whether we should teach students spelling skills or let them invent their own words.
The biggest question is whether we as educators are going to teach literacy skills in such a way that the words lie dead there on the page for so many students, or, conversely, whether we're going to take positive steps toward the ultimate goal of making the words come alive for all students. I invite you to choose the second option, and, for the rest of this book join me in an adventure through the multiple intelligences of reading and writing.
Stay current with the latest brain research in the fields of reading and writing, paying special attention to studies that link the right hemisphere and the limbic system and other subcortical areas of the brain to literacy hint: Survey the literature on the applications of multiple intelligences theory to literacy.
Read Howard Gardner's book Frames of Mindand other books on multiple intelligences, and make your own connections between MI theory and literacy acquisition. Examine the reading, writing, and spelling programs being used in your own educational setting and note which intelligences besides linguistic are being addressed in them.
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Enter the book title within the "Get Permission" search field. To translate this book, contact permissions ascd. The relationship between multiple intelligences and reading proficiency of Iranian EFL students.
World Applied Sciences Journal, 19 10 English Language Teaching, 5 3 Research design and statistics for applied linguistics. The relationship between multiple intelligence types and L2 reading skill among Iranian high school students. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Research, 3 2 Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran. Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment: Solving the assessment conundrum.
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Chapter 1. Literacy, Multiple Intelligences, and the Brain
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