What is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

Cholesterol and Heart Disease – What’s the Evidence? - Students 4 Best Evidence

what is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

Cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, but recent research suggests the The association between cholesterol and heart disease. Firstly, there is evidence of a correlation between high cholesterol/LDL levels and heart disease. The Framingham Study, a prospective cohort. Not only is there a lack of evidence of causal link between LDL and heart disease , the statistical approach statin advocates have used to.

Key risk factors that associate with the number of atherosclerotic CVD events include the total concentration of cholesterol found in the blood, as well as the cholesterol found in individual lipoprotein subclasses [ 3 ]. Cholesterol, Eggs, and Heart Disease 2. This hypothesis was consistent with evidence from animal studies, such as the seminal work by Nikolai N.

High Cholesterol In 30s, 40s, Increases Later Risk Of Heart Disease

Anichkov in rabbits inshowing large doses of cholesterol in the diet markedly induced atherosclerotic plaques in aortas [ 8 ]. Even with these early studies, it was clear that there were species-specific differences in the atherosclerotic response to large doses of dietary cholesterol, with rats being markedly more resistant than rabbits and guinea pigs [ 8 ]. The average intake of dietary cholesterol in U. Eggs are a major source of dietary cholesterol in the typical Western diet; one large egg yolk contains approximately mg of cholesterol.

what is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

The consumption of eggs and egg products contributes about a quarter of the daily cholesterol intake in the U. Saturated fat is known to strongly increase serum cholesterol, and eggs, which are relatively low in saturated fat, only contribute about 2.

what is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

Early observational studies demonstrated a link between dietary cholesterol and risk for CVD [ 1213 ]; however, these initial studies failed to account for many confounding variables that may limit their findings, such as other dietary and lifestyle factors.

However, there does appear to be a more consistent relationship between egg intake and CVD in diabetics [ 1415 ], however, this is not always found [ 17 ]. Interestingly, this risk in diabetics may be related to the phosphatidylcholine content of eggs [ 18 ], and not the cholesterol since dietary cholesterol is shown to be more poorly absorbed in obese and insulin-resistant populations compared to lean individuals [ 192021 ].

Phosphatidylcholine intake has been linked to the gut microbial-dependent generation of trimethylamine N-oxide TMAOa metabolite shown to promote atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mouse models and associated with CVD risk in human cohort studies [ 2223 ].

However, the consumption of 2—3 eggs per day was not associated with increases in fasting TMAO concentrations in healthy, young adults [ 2425 ], while postprandial TMAO concentrations in the plasma of healthy men were found to be markedly lower after egg intake than fish intake, a direct source of dietary TMAO [ 26 ]. Dietary cholesterol intake was not found to be significantly associated with either heart disease, ischemic stroke, or hemorrhagic stroke.

Serum Cholesterol Responses and Adaptations to Cholesterol Intake Early dietary recommendations assumed that increasing dietary cholesterol intake would lead to an increase in cholesterol in the blood, which over several decades would promote the development of heart disease. However, this is an oversimplification since the serum cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol is much more complicated. In the meantime, try to avoid food that lists PHOs or trans fats on the label.

Saturated fats are another source of LDL cholesterol and should be consumed sparingly.

what is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

Foods containing saturated fats include: Being overweight or obese raises your risk of heart disease as well as other health conditions. Grill, broil, or bake instead of frying. Trim the fat off meats and remove skin from poultry.

Use a rack to drain fat off meat and poultry cooked in the oven. Avoid basting with fat drippings. Having high blood cholesterol is one risk factor for heart disease. Other risk factors include: The researchers searched one literature database PubMed in December to identify English-language cohort studies that had included a general population sample aged 60 and over.

Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Lipids, and Heart Disease: Are Eggs Working for or Against You?

Studies had to have taken baseline measures of LDL cholesterol and then followed participants up over time, looking at the link with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Three authors reviewed potential studies and extracted data. From an initial 2, hits, 19 publications, covering 30 cohorts and including 68, participants, were included. The majority of studies were excluded outright, as they didn't seem to contain anything relevant in the study title or abstract summary.

what is the relationship between cholesterol and heart disease

The other reasons for exclusion were non-English language, participants not being representative of the general population, not measuring LDL cholesterol at baseline, and not giving separate data for older adults or looking at mortality outcomes. What were the basic results? That is, as LDL cholesterol went down, all-cause mortality went up — higher LDL was apparently linked to lower all-cause mortality.

In 14 of these 16, this was said to be a statistically significant link. The remaining 12 cohorts found no link with all-cause mortality.

Only nine of the identified cohorts specifically reported cardiovascular mortality. Seven found no link between LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular mortality. The other two found that those in the lowest fourth quartile of LDL levels actually had the highest cardiovascular mortality.

How did the researchers interpret the results? The researchers concluded that, "High LDL-C is inversely associated with mortality in most people over 60 years".

Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Lipids, and Heart Disease: Are Eggs Working for or Against You?

They said their finding contradicts the cholesterol hypothesis: They consider that as they found older adults with high LDL live just as long as those with low LDL, this "provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly".

However, before accepting this as fact, there are many important limitations to consider — both to the review and the included studies — many of which the review authors themselves acknowledge: There is the potential that many studies relevant to this question may have been missed out.

The review searched only a single literature database, excluded studies only available in non-English language, and excluded studies where the title and abstract did not appear to contain information on the link between LDL and mortality in older adults.