Chapter 3 – Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Title: The effect of moderating variables on the attitude-behavior relationship. Authors: Ahmed, Sadrudin A. Date: URL: kd8mq.info The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relati. IN Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees. oral contraceptives. A stratified random sample of married women in a sive review of the attitude-behavior relation variables at corresponding levels of specificity, with the suggestion, "It is .. pothesized that the variables moderating the.
Furthermore, there are as yet no up-to-date instruments for assessing the traits specific to soldiers or their commanders.
The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relati by Ikram Niazi on Prezi
However, certain traits are frequently judged by observers of military affairs to have a high likelihood of salience for the military character. At the top of any such list is "need achievement" or "n-Ach" Bond, Other potentially relevant traits include risk taking and innovativeness. While position in communication networks and other situational factors influence awareness and acceptance of innovations Valente,individual differences are also significant Rogers, Some individuals are clearly more innovative and more accepting of innovations than others.
Innovation can be a powerful factor in a battle command situation. Another factor for consideration is general alertness or vigilance. One approach to characterizing personality traits is known as the five factor theory.
This approach has been used by several investigators over the years, including Hogan and Hogan Although different investigators use different names for the factors, they can be generally classified as follows Barrick and Mount, Janis suggests that for the specific purpose of predicting and understanding command behavior, only three of the five factors are essential: He asserts that these three traits can explain executive decision making in that the scores on these traits for individual managers will predict the manner in which each will fail.
At the organizational level, it is clear that personality plays a role in shaping behavior Argyris, It appears likely, for example, that individuals in an organizational context tend to behave in ways that are congruent with their public personas.
In particular, people attempt to present a consistent pattern of behavior that represents their mode of fulfilling an organizational role Heise, Role assignments and personality do not fully determine behavior in organizations.
One reason for this is that the command, control, and communications C3 structure and the task can constrain individual decision making to the point where individual differences become secondary. In recent years there has been a strong push to merge concepts of personality with concepts of emotion Plutchik and Conte, This merger is seen as a means of reducing the complexity of concepts and enhancing the power to predict behavior. Emotions 4 Hudlicka has developed a cogent approach to the problem of fitting concepts from research on human emotions into a framework of military operations—and the simulation thereof.
She notes, for example, that emotions have until recently had a somewhat marginal status in both cognitive science and neuroscience. Over the past 10 years, however, important discoveries in neuroscience and experimental psychology have contributed to an interest in the scientific study of emotion. A growing body of evidence from neuroscience research points to the existence of neural circuitry processing emotionally relevant stimuli i.
Studies in experimental psychology have identified memory systems with distinct processing characteristics—explicit and implicit memory Schachter, ; see also Chapter 5analogous to the characteristics of the neural circuitry identified by LeDoux of fast, less differentiated processing and slower, more refined processing.
Cognitive psychologists have described a variety of appraisal processes involved in inducing a particular emotional state in response to a situation Frijda and Swagerman, ; Lazarus,and several models of these processes have been proposed Ortony et al.
The link between cognition and emotion has been strengthened by the findings of Cacioppo and Tassinarywho show that some individuals have an emotional need to engage in cognitive activities.
A number of studies in cognitive and organizational psychology have documented the differential impact of various emotional states on cognition. While there are still disagreements among researchers regarding the number of basic emotions ortony et al. These findings illustrate the impact of emotion on cognitive processing and the central role of emotion in the control of behavior.
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They also begin to blur the distinction between what have traditionally been thought of as the separate realms of cognition and emotion.
Modern examples of conformance to group norms in highly charged situations, such as protest marches, exemplify the point. Anxiety The primary impact of anxiety is on attention. Specifically, anxiety narrows the focus of attention and predisposes toward the detection of threatening stimuli and the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as dangerous Williams et al. Obsessiveness A number of studies have documented the impact of obsessiveness, characterized by "checking" behavior, on cognitive processing.
Among the primary effects identified are lack of confidence in one's own attention apparatus to capture salient features in the environment Broadbent et al. Depression The primary impact of depression is on memory. Perhaps the best-documented phenomenon is mood-congruent recall in memory Bower, ; Blaney,whereby a particular affective mood induces recall of similarly valenced memories e. Depression has also been studied in the context of particular inferencing tasks, such as judgment and decision making, in which depression appears to lower estimates of the degree of control Isen, Even more to the point, a positive disposition appears to be correlated with high-quality performance among managerial-level employees Straw and Barsade, Attitudes and Expectancies Attitudes were once defined as predispositions to respond in certain rigid ways.
That is, an individual with a negative attitude toward a particular situation would always respond negatively or with avoidance. Current conceptualizations, however, distinguish between fundamental and transient attitudes Heise, and allow for a change in position.
This approach includes feedback controls that continually rebalance the relationship between the two types of attitude. Thus behavior congruent with fundamental attitudes can result in a change in the transient state, and if a difference in tone between fundamental and transient attitudes is detected, behavior that will minimize the discrepancy is initiated. These are core propositions of affect control theory Heise, In prior, stage-setting work, Osgood used the techniques of semantic differential in a multinational survey approach to test the idea that attitude re- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Expectancies are a product of the interaction between beliefs and attitudes.
Hypothetically, beliefs are purely cognitive—based on past objective experience. When a belief and an attitude come together, an expectancy is established. Such a state is not only a subjective estimate of the probability of a given occurrence, but also a perception moderator such that low subjective probability of occurrence is associated with a form of perceptual denial. The linkage of attitudes to the quality of military performance probably should be through the concept of expectancies.
That is, there appear to be no a priori grounds for suggesting that any specific pattern of attitudes will generate any particular impact on military performances Cesta et al. However, if an attitude influences expectancies—particularly if it is not supported by objective facts—it can influence decisions made about the object.thesis with moderating variable
Cultural Values Cultural values and their impact on behavior are of critical importance to the military. Although the study of these values and the influence of nationality on behavior is an active area of behavioral research Berry et al. The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger is the link between the two. For instance, asking someone specifically about her intention to stay with the organization for the next months is likely to better predict turnover for that person than if you asked satisfied she was with her pay.
Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power.
Recherche uO Research: The effect of moderating variables on the attitude-behavior relationship
This tends to characterize behavior in organizations. Finally, the attitude-behavior relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct personal experience. Asking college students with no significant work experience how they would respond to working for an authoritarian supervisor is far less likely to predict actual behavior than asking that same question of employees who have actually worked for such an individual.
Although most A-B studies yield positive results, researchers have achieved still higher correlations by pursuing another direction looking at whether or not behavior influences attitudes. This view, called self-perception theory, has generated some encouraging findings. When asked about an attitude toward some object, individuals often recall their behavior relevant to that object and then infer their attitude from their past behavior.