Charles I of England - New World Encyclopedia
1. Charles I - marriage and parliament. The twenty-four-year old Charles married fifteen-year-old Henrietta Maria (by proxy) on 1 May , but initially. 1 Early Life; 2 Early Reign; 3 Tyranny or Personal Rule? . Charles resolved not to be forced to rely on Parliament for further monetary aid. .. in the contemporary popular press in relation to the execution—a beached whale. Charles I's Conflict with Parliament, the full text of A History of the British The House broke out into wild disorder; one of the members locked the door and put.
He ordered the House to adjourn till March 2nd. In the interval he endeavoured to negotiate with leading members. When the House met, Eliot moved three resolutions; against innovations in religion and the introduction of unorthodox opinion; against all persons who should be concerned in the levying of tonnage and poundage without direct parliamentary sanction; against all persons who should pay tonnage and poundage if it should be so demanded.
All such persons were declared to be enemies of the king. Disorder in the Commons Before the resolution could be moved the Speaker, Finch, announced that he had orders to adjourn the House again. But two of the members held him forcibly in the chair. The House broke out into wild disorder; one of the members locked the door and put the key in his pocket.
Charles I, Civil War and the Restoration
When comparative calm had been restored, the Speaker refused to put the resolutions to the House. The king's troops were approaching to compel the assembly to disperse. While the Speaker was held in the chair, Holies, a member, read the resolutions. They were carried by acclamation. Then the doors were unlocked and the members poured out. Their dispersion was followed by the announcement that the parliament was dissolved. Eleven years passed before another parliament met.
In June the majority of the members remaining in London sent the king the Nineteen Propositionswhich included demands that no ministers should be appointed without parliamentary approval, that the army should be put under parliamentary control, and that Parliament should decide about the future of the church.
But in July both sides were urgently making ready for war. The king formally raised the royal standard at Nottingham on August 22 and sporadic fighting soon broke out all over the kingdom. Civil War In September the earl of Essexin command of the Parliamentarian forces, left London for the midlands, while Charles moved his headquarters to Shrewsbury to recruit and train an army on the Welsh marches.
During a drawn battle fought at Edgehill near Warwick on October 23, the king addressed his troops in these words: The foe is in sight.
In the royal cause prospered, particularly in Yorkshire and the southwest. At Oxfordwhere Charles had moved his court and military headquarters, he dwelt pleasantly enough in Christ Church College. The Queen, having sold some of her jewels and bought a shipload of arms from Holland, landed in Yorkshire in February and joined her husband in Oxford in mid-July. The king seems to have assented to a scheme for a three-pronged attack on London—from the west, from Oxford, and from Yorkshire—but neither the westerners nor the Yorkshiremen were anxious to leave their own districts.
In the course of a peace party of the Parliamentarian side made some approaches to Charles in Oxford, but these failed and the Parliamentarians concluded an alliance with the Scottish covenanters. Charles successfully held his inner lines at Oxford and throughout the west and southwest of England, while he dispatched his nephew, Prince Ruperton cavalry raids elsewhere.
These came to nothing, but he was cheered by reports that his opponents were beginning to quarrel among themselves. The year proved to be one of decision. In this manner, the House of Commons hoped to keep a check on Charles's power by forcing him to seek the renewal of the grant each year. Charles's allies in the House of Lords, led by the Duke of Buckingham, refused to pass the bill. Although no Parliamentary authority for the levy of tonnage and poundage could be obtained, Charles continued to collect the duties anyway.
Tyranny or Personal Rule?
Charles I's Conflict with Parliament
In January Charles opened the second session of the Parliament which had been prorogued in June Rolle was an MP who had his goods confiscated for not paying tonnage and poundage. This was seen by many MPs as a breach of the Petition of Right, who argued that the freedom from arrest privilege extended to goods.
When he requested a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, John Finch, down in his chair while three resolutions against Charles were read aloud. The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorized by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same.
Charles I of England
The fact that a number of MPs had to be detained in Parliament is relevant in understanding that there was no universal opposition toward the king. Afterward, when the Commons passed further measures displeasing to Charles, he dissolved parliament. Charles resolved not to be forced to rely on Parliament for further monetary aid.
Immediately, he made peace with France and Spain. Charles's rule without Parliament constituted a valid but nevertheless exceptional exercise of the royal prerogative. In former times such rule would have been considered just but by the middle of the seventeenth century it was held by many to be an exercise of absolute power.
This oil painting, done aroundwas created so that the Italian sculptor, Bernini, could create a marble bust of Charles.
Even without Parliament Charles still had to acquire funds in order to maintain his treasury. He also reintroduced the obsolete feudal tax known as ship money which was even more unpopular. A writ issued in ordered the collection of ship money in peacetime, notwithstanding statutes of Edward I and Edward III that had prohibited the levying of such a tax except during wars.
Charles I of England - Wikipedia
This first writ ofhowever, did not encourage much opposition on legal grounds, but a second writ of did. Charles's third writ demanding ship money, issued inmade it clear that the ancient prohibition on collecting ship money during peacetime had been swept away. Many attempted to resist payment, but Charles's judges, whose tenure depended on his "good pleasure," declared that the tax was within the king's prerogative. This action of demanding ship money to be raised in peacetime was a major cause of concern among the ruling class; however, it must be noted that it was the attempted enforcement of the Anglican and increasingly Arminian styled prayer book under Laud that precipitated the rebellion in Scotland, which ended Personal Rule in This goal was shared by his main political adviser, Archbishop William Laud.
Laud was appointed by Charles as the Archbishop of Canterbury in and started a series of unpopular reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial. Laud attempted to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen and closing Puritan organizations.
His policy was obnoxious to Calvinist theology, and insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated with all of the ceremony and vestments called for by the Book of Common Prayer. Laud was also an advocate of Arminian theology, a view in which emphasis on the ability to reject salvation was viewed as heretical and virtually "Catholic" by strict Calvinists.
To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud used the two most feared and arbitrary courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. The former could compel individuals to provide self-incriminating testimony, while the latter could inflict any punishment whatsoever including torturewith the sole exception of death.
The lawlessness of the Court of Star Chamber under Charles I far exceeded that under any of his predecessors. Under Charles's reign, defendants were regularly hauled before the court without indictment, due process of the law, or the right to confront witnesses, and their testimonies were routinely extracted by the king and his courtiers through extensive torture. The first years of the Personal Rule were marked by peace in England, to some extent due to tighter central control.
Several individuals opposed Charles's taxes and Laud's policies, but the overall trend of the early Personal Rule period is one of peace.
When, however, Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland, he faced numerous difficulties. The king ordered the use of a new Prayer Book modeled on the English Book of Common Prayerwhich, although supported by the Scottish Bishops, was resisted by many Presbyterian Scots, who saw the new Prayer Book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland.
When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland abolished Episcopalian government that is, governance of the Church by Bishops inreplacing it with Presbyterian government that is, governance by Elders and DeaconsCharles sought to put down what he saw as a rebellion against his authority.
Inwhen the First Bishops' War broke out, Charles sought to collect taxes from his subjects, who refused to yield any further. Charles's war ended in a humiliating truce in June of the same year. In the Pacification of Berwick, Charles agreed to grant his Scottish subjects civil and ecclesiastical freedoms.
Charles's military failure in the First Bishops' War in turn caused a financial and military crisis for Charles, leading to the end of Personal Rule. Due to his financial weakness, Charles was forced to call Parliament into session by in an attempt to raise funds.
While the ruling class grievances with the changes to government and finance during the Personal Rule period were a contributing factor in the Scottish Rebellion, it was mainly due to the key issue of religion that Charles was forced to confront the ruling class in Parliament for the first time in 11 years.
In essence, it was Charles's and Laud's confrontational religious modifications that ended what the Whig historians refer to as "The Eleven Years of Tyranny. To subdue the Scots, Charles needed more money; therefore, he took the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule.
As both sides refused to give ground on this matter, Parliament was dissolved in Mayless than a month after it assembled. Thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament. The humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed after the end of the Second Bishops' War in Octoberrequired the king to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought. Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium, the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the king's hereditary counselors.