The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings ) | kd8mq.info
King Solomon used wisdom to lead Israel, but his accomplishments became meaningless Meet King Solomon: The Wisest Man Who Ever Lived . The mother of the dead baby tried to take the living child from the other mother. 2 Samuel - 1 Kings ; 1 Chronicles 28, 29; 2 Chronicles ;. But in Sheba, women played an important role in society and were equal to men in nearly all Solomon may have met his match, and so may she. 2 She came to Jerusalem with a very great retinue, with camels bearing spices, and 4 And when the queen of Sheba had seen all the wisdom of Solomon, the house that he . Solomon Wisely Judges - Then two women who were harlots came to the king and stood before him. 1 Kings 21 Kings 4 .. the king hadhanded down, they feared the king, for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him toadminister justice.
Most probably she was from Ethiopia, a queen in her own right — a royal woman used to getting her own way and confidently sure of her worth. Of course she was not the only queen in the ancient world. Egypt and Assyria had women who ruled. Polygamy was rare in Sheba. What does she mean? The emperor of Ethiopia traced his direct lineage from this baby.
Needless to say, the Bible does not mention it. Whatever the truth, Solomon had such a reputation for enjoying the company of women that people have speculated that there was more to their relationship than just diplomacy. An affair between two equals? Solomon may have met his match, and so may she. Saba or Sheba was one of the most important southern Arabian kingdoms. It played a major role in the trade of the area, especially in spices and incense for which south-western Arabia was famous.
The camel had been recently introduced into that part of the world. It may well have been the Queen of Sheba who kick-started this expansion. Why was Sheba and its queen so rich?
Joel refers to the people of Sheba as slave traders 3: The excuse for her visit, of course, would be her desire to see the famous king.
The Book of Wisdom or The Wisdom of Solomon
Part of her motive was curiosity about Solomon, who enjoyed a reputation for being a shrewd judge of character and a learned scholar as well. This is part of the truth. The visit seems to have included a diplomatic ceremony. Sumptuous gifts were exchanged — the Bible mentions gold, spices, precious stones and almug wood, which was probably sandlewood or pine.
According to Liver, the source for the Judgment of Solomon story, as well as other parts of the account of Solomon's reign, is in the speculated book of the Acts of Solomonwhich he proposes to be a wisdom work which originated in the court circles shortly after the split of the united monarchy.
In the first part verses 16—22 the case is described: The two women introduce their arguments, and at this point, no response from the king is recorded. In the second part 23—28 the decision is described: Apart from this clear twofold division, suggestions have been raised as to the plot structure and the literary structure of the story and its internal relations.
The dialogues move the plot forward. The king's request to bring him a sword enhances the tension, as the reader wonders why it is needed.
The story comes to its climax with the shocking royal order to cut the boy, which for a moment casts doubt on the king's judgment. But what seems to be the verdict turns out to be a clever trick which achieves its goal, and results in the recognition of the true mother and the resolution.
Purpose[ edit ] The major overt purpose of the account of Solomon's reign, to which the Judgment of Solomon belongs as stated above, is to glorify King Solomon, and his wisdom is one of the account's dominant themes. The first two chapters 1 Kings 1—2which according to many scholars portray a dubious image of Solomon, and as stated above, are sometimes ascribed to a separate work; And the last chapter in the account 11which describes Solomon's sins in his old age.
Nevertheless, many scholars point out to elements in the account that criticize Solomon, anticipating his downfall in chapter Most scholars read the story at face value, and conclude that its major purpose is to demonstrate the fulfillment of the divine promise and to illustrate Solomon's wisdom expressed in a juridical form.
Yet some scholars recognize in this story too, as in other parts of the account of Solomon's reign, ironic elements which are not consistent with the story's overt purpose to glorify Solomon. Some scholars assume, as mentioned, that the story had existed independently before it was integrated into its current context. Willem Beuken think that the original tale was not about the king's wisdom — the concluding note about Solomon's wisdom is considered secondary — but about a woman who, by listening to her motherly instinct, helped the king to break through the legal impasse.
Beuken notes additional biblical stories which share the motif of the woman who influenced the king: Bathshebathe woman of Tekoaand Solomon's foreign wives who seduced him into idolatry. According to this analysis, the story in its current context gives equal weight to the compassion of the true mother and to the godly wisdom that guided Solomon in the trial.
Later, the narrative context of the story has undergone another Deuteronomistic redaction that has undermined Solomon's figure in comparison to Josiah. The most similar story is that of the two cannibal mothers in 2 Kings 6: The background is a famine in Samariacaused by a siege on the city. As the king passes through the city, a woman calls him and asks him to decide in a quarrel between her and another woman: The two women had agreed to cook and eat the son of one woman, and on the other day to do the same with the son of the other woman; but after they ate the first woman's son, the other woman hid her own son.
The king, shocked from the description of the case, tore up his royal cloth and revealed that he was wearing sackcloth beneath it. He blamed Elisha for the circumstances and went on to chase him.
There are some striking similarities between this story and the Judgment of Solomon. Both deal with nameless women who gave birth to a son. One of the son dies, and a quarrel erupts as to the fate of the other one. The case is brought before the king to decide.
According to Lasine, the comparison between the stories emphasize the absurdity of the situation in the story of the cannibal mothers: While in the Judgment of Solomon, the king depend on his knowledge of maternal nature to decide the case, the story of the cannibal women describe a "topsy-turvy" world in which maternal nature does not work as expected, thus leaving the king helpless.
Perhaps their names have not been mentioned so that they would not overshadow Solomon's wisdom, which is the main theme of the story.
The Book of Wisdom or The Wisdom of Solomon
The women seem to be poor. They live alone in a shared residence, without servants. As prostitutes, they lack male patronage and have to take care of themselves in a patriarchal society. It clarifies why the women live alone, gave birth alone and were alone during the alleged switch of the babies;  The lack of witnesses seems to create a legal impasse that only the wise king can solve.
It also clarifies why the women are not represented by their husbands, as is customary in biblical society. Prostitutes in biblical society are considered functional widows, for they have no male patron to represent them in court, and their sons are considered fatherless.
They also bear similarity to the proselytewho is sometimes mentioned in the Hebrew Bible with the widow and the fatherless, in that they are socially marginalized and deprived of the right to advocacy.
They can only seek justice from one place: God, embodied in the story as the source of Solomon's wisdom. The true mother is revealed when her motherly essence — which is also stereotypical — surpasses her selfish essence. For the true mother it is manifested, as mentioned, in the compassion and devotion that she shows for her son; And for the impostor it is manifested in her desire for a son, which makes her steal the other mother's son when her own son dies.
Bible, Revised Standard Version
According to Brenner, one of the lessons of the story is that "true maternal feelings However, some propose a different meaning for this word in the context of the story, such as "tavern owner" or "innkeeper". These proposals are usually dismissed as apologetic. Walsh combines the two meanings, and suggests that in ancient Near East, some prostitutes also provided lodging services cf.
A striking feature in the biblical story, untypical to its parallels,  is that it does not begin with a credible report of the omniscient narrator about the events that took place before the trial; It immediately opens with the women's testimonies. Thus, the reader is unable to determine whether the account given by the plaintiff is true or false, and he confronts, along with Solomon, a juridical-detective riddle.