Lewis and Clark . Inside the Corps . The Corps . Sacagawea | PBS
The Corps of Discovery route from Fort Mandan to the Pacific, 5, miles, 16 November 4, – Lewis and Clark met Toussaint Charbonneau and hired him as March 23, – Charbonneau did not adjust to the life tilling the land and . The Lewis and Clark Expedition began in , when President Thomas While at Fort Mandan, Lewis and Clark met French-Canadian trapper Sacagawea had been kidnapped by Hidatsa Indians at age 12 and then sold to Charbonneau . they did so against tremendous odds with just one death and little violence. Biography, Lewis and Clark expedition - Tagged: biography, expedition, The Corps of Discovery route from Fort Mandan to the Pacific, 5, miles, 16 month journey. . On August 17, Clark described the meeting of Sacagawea and her the times when women did not have the right to vote and African Americans .
As a young girl she and other Shoshone were captured by an enemy tribe, the Hidatsa. While some reports record that they were taken as slaves, Hidatsa scholars say that the most likely victims were motherless children who would have been given to the Hidatsa mothers who had lost their children to disease. French-Canadian trapper and fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau met Sacagewea while she was living with the Hidatsa. While still in early teens, she became one of his two wives.
Lewis and Clark Expedition Sacagawea was pregnant with her first child when the Corps of Discovery arrived near the Hidatsa village to spend the winter of The Corps leaders also used the time to talk to different trappers to select one to come with them as a guide and interpreter.
Toussaint Charbonneau was selected to be a part of the Corps because of his knowledge of the West and his facility with French and English. When Lewis and Clark discovered that one of his wives was Shoshone, they asked him to bring her along to help them through Indian territory. Charbonneau and Sacagawea moved into Fort Mandan with the Corps of Discovery to help prepare for the trip. They planned to travel west to the mountains along the Missouri River.
Early in the trip, Sacagawea proved her worth. On May 14,the boat in which Sacagawea was traveling was hit by a wave in such a way that the boat pitched to the side.
The m en worked to right the boat, and Sacagewea with Pompey strapped to her back, set about retrieving the instruments and books that floated out of the boat when it tipped. This was precious cargo so they were always wrapped in waterproof packaging when the Corps traveled by water. So grateful were the corps commanders that they named that section of the river in her honor.
Reports that she was the primary guide for the group are incorrect. When the group arrived at the village, Sacagawea learned that all of her family except two brothers and the son of a sister had been killed. One of her brothers was now the chief, and a joyful reunion ensued. As Lewis and Clark requested, Sacagawea negotiated a deal with the Shoshone that provided them with the horses needed to cross the Rockies but also a guide to help them through.
The trip was far worse than anyone could have imagined.
Sacagawea: Only Woman to Accompany the Lewis and Clark Expedition - America Comes Alive
Food became nonexistent and the Corps was reduced to eating tallow candles to survive. As they descended the western slope and reached an area below timberline, Sacagawea showed the men how to find and cook camas roots to help them regain their strength. There was only one time on record when she was unhappy. When they were very near the Pacific, Clark had intended to leave Sacagewea at the camp while the men ventured on.
When Sacagawea heard this, she expressed her dismay directly to Captain Clark. She had not come all this distance to be denied the opportunity to see the great waters. Return Trip After reaching the Pacific, Lewis and Clark agreed to take two separate routes on the return, meeting up at the point where the Yellowstone empties into the Missouri.
When they reached the Rockies, Sacagawea told the captain that she knew the area well enough that she would locate a gap in the high range of the Rockies that would let them cross. After a week, she returned and led them down to the Yellowstone River basin to cross via what is now known as Bozeman Pass. Later the Northern Pacific Railway chose this passage to build their rail line. As they traveled along the Yellowstone River they encountered a particularly interesting flat-topped rock formation that offered Clark an excellent view of the surrounding territory.
Expedition moves in for the winter season. The Corps of Discovery celebrates the New Year by "Two discharges of cannon and Musick—a fiddle, tambereen and a sounden horn. Thomas Howard scaled the fort wall and a native American followed his example.
Lashes remitted by Lewis. Sacagawea gives birth to Jean Baptiste Charbonneauthe youngest member of the expedition. Jean Baptiste is nicknamed "Pompy" by Clark.Fort Mandan & Sacagawea
Lewis aided in the delivery of Sacagawea's baby, used rattle of rattlesnake to aid delivery Jessaume's idea. Fort Mandan to Yellowstone River. The permanent party of the Corps of Discovery leaves Fort Mandan.
Fort Mandan Winter
The keelboat is sent down river. Left Fort Mandan in six canoes and two pirogues. Thomas Howard received a letter from his wife Natalia.
He saw Big Horn Sheep and brought back horns.
Lewis searched area thought it would be a good area for fort. Future forts were built, Fort Union and Fort Buford. A sudden storm tips a pirogue boat and many items, such as supplies and the Corps' journals, spill over into the river. Sacagawea calmly recovers most of the items; Clark later credits her with quick thinking.
April 25 — June 3: Yellowstone River to Marias River. Entered present day state of Montana. Lewis and a hunter killed first grizzly bear. Called because of its milky white appearance. Natives called it "a river which scolds all others". Marias River to the Great Falls. The mouth of the Marias River is reached. Camp Deposit is established. Cached blacksmith bellows and tools, bear skins, axes, auger, files, two kegs of parched corn, two kegs of pork, a keg of salt, chisels, tin cups, two rifles, beaver traps.
Twenty-four lb of powder in lead kegs in separate caches. Natives did not tell them of this river. Unable to immediately determine which river is the Missouri, a scouting party is sent to explore each branch, North fork MariasSouth fork Missouri. Gass and two others go up south fork. Pryor and two others go up north fork. Can't decide which river is Missouri.
Clark, Gass, Shannon, York and Fields brothers go up south fork. Most men in expedition believe north fork is the Missouri. Lewis and Clark believe south fork is Missouri and followed that fork.
Scouting ahead of the expedition, Lewis and four companions sight the Great Falls of the Missouri Riverconfirming that they were heading in the right direction.
Lewis writes when he discovers the Great Falls of the Missouri. Lewis takes off on an exploratory walk of the north side of the river. Lewis shoots a bison. While he is watching the bison die, a grizzly bear sneaks up on him and chases him into river. June 21 — July 2: A portage of boats and equipment is made around the falls.
Clark was the first white man to see falls from south side of river. As Clark was surveying route he discovered a giant fountain Giant Springs. June 22 — July 9: Construction of iron framed boat used to replace pirogues. It was floated on July 9 but leaked after a rain storm. The boat failed and was dismantled and cached July Established canoe camp to construct 2 new dugout canoes to replace failed iron frame boat.
July 15 — August 8: Great Falls to the Shoshone. The expedition is They pass Beaverhead Rock. Captain Clark's 35th birthday.
Captain Lewis sights first native American since Ft. Lewis meets Cameahwaitleader of a band of Shoshone August 15— A council meets with the Shoshone, during which Sacagawea learns the fate of her family and reveals that Cameahwait is her brother. Lewis and Clark successfully negotiate for horses for passage over the Rocky Mountains. They buy 29 horses for packing or eating with uniforms, rifles, powder, balls, and a pistol.
They also hire Shoshone guide Old Toby. Captain Lewis's 31st birthday. In his journal, he scolds himself for being "indolent", or lazy, and vows to spend the rest of his life helping people. Lewis and the main party cross the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass. They thereby leave the newly purchased United States territory into disputed Oregon Country. September 1 — October 6: Crossing the Bitterroot Mountains.
Crossed Lolo Trail starving, ate horses, candles, and portable soup. Met Nez Perce tribe on Clearwater. Left horses, cached goods, built five dugout canoes for trip to ocean. October 9 — December 7: Clark sees Mount Hoodwhich means they are now back in previously explored territory.
Camped at the Rock Fortand first met the Chinookan-speaking people of the lower Columbia. Clark wrote in his journal, "Ocian [ocean] in view! Encounter of the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River.
The Corps takes the matter of where to spend the winter to a vote. York, a slave, and Sacagawea, a woman, were allowed to vote. It was decided to camp on the south side of the Columbia River. December 7 — March 23, Fort Clatsop sewed pairs of moccasins. Fort Clatsopthe Corps' winter residence, is completed.
Discharged a volley of small arms to usher in the new year. Several Corps members build a salt -making cairn near present-day Seaside, Oregon. Return trip March Corps of Discovery leave Fort Clatsop for the return voyage east. March 23 — May Traveled to Camp Chopunnish. Lewis' dog was stolen by natives and retrieved shortly. Lewis warned the chief that any other wrongdoing or mischievous acts would result in instant death. May 14 — June Camp Chopunnish collected 65 horses.
Prepared for crossing mountains. Bitterroot Mountains still covered in snow; cannot cross.
Three hundred miles shorter than westward journey. Seventeen horses and five Nez Perce guides. June 30 — July 3: The Corps of Discovery split into two groups with Lewis leading one group up the Blackfoot River and Clark leading another group up the Bitterroot River.